Other Research Papers

Brand-Specific Alcohol Research

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1. Alcohol Concern. Alcohol Brands Consumed by Young People in Treatment, 2015. London: Alcohol Concern; 2015.This report summarizes the results of a survey conducted by Alcohol Concern which ascertains the alcohol brands consumed most often by young people accessing drug and alcohol services in England. The survey has been conducted annually since 2012. For the 2015 survey, 223 children and young people ages 12-20 were recruited to participate between November 2014 and March 2015. Youth were asked to report the alcohol brand most commonly consumed. The five most consumed alcohol brands were: (1) Fosters beer; (2) generic or own-brand vodka; (3) Frosty Jack's cider; (4) Smirnoff vodka; and (5) Jack Daniel's whiskey.
2. Primack BA, Colditz JB, Pang KC, Jackson KM. Portrayal of alcohol intoxication on YouTube. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2015: Epub ahead of print. DOI: 10.1111/acer.12640.This paper analyzes the content of popular YouTube videos depicting alcohol intoxication. The authors found that nearly half of the videos mentioned an alcohol brand by name, and that the videos frequently portrayed positive characteristics related to alcohol/alcohol intoxication, such as humor. A minority of the videos portrayed negative characteristics or consequences of alcohol use. This study suggestsYouTube videos may be an important area for public health intervention related to alcohol use.
3. Morgenstern M, Sargent JD, Sweeting H, Faggiano F, Mathis F, Hanewinkel R. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: A cross-cultural cohort study. Addiction. 2014: DOI:10.1111/add.12667.This article examines the relationship between having a favorite alcohol advertisement and reported binge drinking among a sample of over 12,000 European youth. The study found that receptivity to alcohol marketing (i.e. having a favorite alcohol advertisement) was significantly associated with adolescent binge drinking at baseline and follow-up surveys. These findings suggest that exposure to alcohol brand advertising may be related to youth binge drinking.
4. Primack B, McClure A, Li Z, Sargent J. Receptivity to and recall of alcohol brand appearances in U.S. popular music and alcohol-related behaviors. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research. 2014;38(6):1737-1744.This paper describes the results of a national random-digit-dial survey conducted among 2,541 U.S. youth ages 15 to 23. The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between youth music preferences, alcohol brand recognition in popular music lyrics, and alcohol consumption behavior. The authors found an association between youth receptivity to and recall of alcohol brand mentions in popular music and adolescents' reports of ever drinking or ever binge-drinking. These findings suggest that exposure to popular music with alcohol brand references may influence youth drinking behavior.
5. Ross C, Ostroff J, Jernigan DH. Evidence of underage targeting of alcohol advertising on television in the United States: Lessons from the Lockyer v. Reynolds decisions. Journal of Public Health Policy. 2014;35:105-118.This paper evaluates the targeted marketing of alcohol to youth via television advertisements in the U.S. The authors found that from 2005 to 2011, exposure of underage drinkers (aged 18-20) to alcohol marketing in television ads grew faster than the exposure of any adult group. Additionally, the researchers analyzed the cable advertising representation of the alcohol brands most popular with underage drinkers (Siegel et al., 2013) and found that 17 of the top 25 brands targeted viewers aged 18-20 in at least one of the seven years of advertising data analyzed.
6. Jernigan DH, Cukier S, Ross C, Rafay Ahmed S, Stolbach A. Alcohol brand use and injury in the Emergency Department: A pilot study. Substance Use & Misuse. 2014; 49:59-65.This study evaluated patients at an urban Emergency Room in the U.S. for their reported alcohol use and specific alcohol brand consumption prior to the injury that resulted in ER admission. The research team found the patient interview method to be feasible for collecting injury-related alcohol use data, and analysis comparing the ER patients' data to national alcohol market share data revealed significant differences in alcohol consumption by type and brand.
7. Hardcastle KA, Hughes K, Sharples O, Bellis MA. Trends in alcohol portrayal in popular music: A longitudinal analysis of the UK charts. Psychology of Music 2013; 0:1-12.This study examined the lyrics of top-10 UK singles in 1981, 1991, 2001, and 2011 to assess the presence of alcohol references and brand promotion. The authors found an increase in the prevalence of alcohol references between 2001 and 2011, with mentions occurring in nearly 20% of 2011 songs analyzed; however, comparatively few songs (3.0%) referred to specific alcohol brands. Alcohol references were particularly associated with R&B, rap, and hip-hop genres as well as with U.S.-based artists.
8. Bergamini E, Demidenko E, Sargent JD. Trends in tobacco and alcohol brand placements in popular US movies, 1996 through 2009. JAMA Pediatrics 2013; 167:634-639.This study analyzed the content of top-100 box-office hits from 1996 through 2009 to assess the impact of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which was intended to reduce tobacco brand placement in films. The study also examined films for alcohol brand placement in light of the 1999 Federal Trade Commission request to reduce such placements in media targeted at youth. The paper reports that starting in 2000, there was an exponential decline in the presence of tobacco product placements in films, and a significant reduction in onscreen smoking. In contrast, there was no declining trend in alcohol product placement in films, and in fact a statistically significant increase was found in the amount of alcohol brand appearances in movies rated appropriate for youth.
9. Primack BA, Nuzzo E, Rice KR, Sargent JD. Alcohol brand appearances in US popular music. Addiction 2011; 107:557-566.This study examined the top 793 popular songs to which U.S. adolescents were most exposed in 2005-2007 and determined whether the lyrics referred to alcohol and to any particular alcohol brand. The paper reports that 21.3% of the songs referred to alcohol, and of those, 24.3% referred to a specific alcohol brand. The paper also examines the contextual factors associated with the alcohol brand appearances.
10. Gentile DA, Walsh DA, Bloomgren BW, Atti JA, Norman JA. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior. Presented at the Biennial Conference of the Society for Research in Child Development, April 2001. Minneapolis, MN: National Institute on Media and the Family, 2001.This paper is perhaps the first to measure alcohol brand awareness, preferences, and use among adolescents and to correlate those preferences with brand-specific advertising. The paper measures the beer brands preferred by adolescent drinkers and non-drinkers and correlates these preferences with levels of brand-specific television advertising.
11. Jones SC, Barrie L. RTDs in Australia: Expensive designer drinks or cheap rocket fuel? Drug and Alcohol Review2011; 30:4-11.This study is the first to report brand-specific prices, alcohol content, availability, and cost per standard drink. The article reports alcohol prices by brand for flavored alcoholic beverages in Australia based on an audit of 52 alcohol retail outlets.
12. Casswell S. Alcohol brands in young peoples' everyday lives: New developments in marketing. Alcohol & Alcoholism 2004; 39:471-476.This article presents an excellent overview of the importance of brand in alcohol marketing and youth alcohol use. It also presents a concise summary of the theory of brand capital, which is the theoretical foundation for our alcohol brand research.
13. Saffer H. Alcohol advertising and youth. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 2002; Supplement 14:173-181.This article presents an outstanding review of the theory of brand capital, which is the theoretical foundation for our alcohol brand research. It also explains why brand-specific research is essential in order to understand the relationship between alcohol marketing and alcohol use.
14. Studies of the relationship between alcohol brand awareness or brand-specific alcohol ad awareness and alcohol-related attitudes or behavior among youth:a. Casswell S, Zhang JF. Impact of liking for advertising and brand allegiance on drinking and alcohol-related aggression: A longitudinal study. Addiction 1998; 93:1209-1217. [LINK]

b. Grube JW, Wallack L. Television beer advertising and drinking knowledge, beliefs, and intentions among schoolchildren. American Journal of Public Health 1994; 84:254-259. [LINK]

c. Aitken PP, Leathar DS, Scott AC. Ten-to-sixteen-year-olds' perceptions of advertisements for alcoholic drinks. Alcohol & Alcoholism 1988; 23:491-500. [LINK]

d. Collins RL, Ellickson PL, McCaffrey D, Hambarsoomians K. Early adolescent exposure to alcohol advertising and its relationship to underage drinking. Journal of Adolescent Health 2007; 40:527-534. [LINK]

e. Aitken PP. Television alcohol commercials and under-age drinking. International Journal of Advertising 1989; 8:133-150. [LINK]

f. Atkin CK, Neuendorf K, McDermott S. The role of alcohol advertising in excessive and hazardous drinking. Journal of Drug Education 1983; 13:313-325. [LINK]

g. Wallack L, Cassady D, Grube J. TV Beer Commercials and Children: Exposure, Attention, Beliefs and Expectations about Drinking as an Adult. Washington, DC: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, 1990. [LINK]

h. Kelly KJ, Slater MD, Karan D. Image advertisements' influence on adolescents' perceptions of the desirability of beer and cigarettes. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing 2002; 21:295-304. [LINK]

i. Austin EW, Nach-Ferguson B. Sources and influences of young school-age children's general and brand-specific knowledge about alcohol. Health Communication 1994; 7:1-20. [LINK]

j. Collins RL, Schell T, Ellickson PL, McCaffrey D. Predictors of beer advertising awareness among eighth graders. Addiction 2003; 98:1297-1306. [LINK]

k. Unger JB, Johnson CA, Rohrbach LA. Recognition and liking of tobacco and alcohol advertisements among adolescents: Relationships with susceptibility to substance use. Preventive Medicine 1995; 24:461-466. [LINK]

l. Lieber L. Commercial and Character Slogan Recall by Children Aged 9 to 11 Years: Budweiser Frogs Versus Bugs Bunny. Berkeley, CA: Center on Alcohol Advertising, 1996.

m. Moss HB, Kirby SD, Donodeo F. Characterizing and reaching high-risk drinkers using audience segmentation. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research 2008; 32:222-229. [LINK]


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